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Among our available facilities is the clean room, internally named Christiania. The room reaches the requirements for ISO5 or class 100. The clean room is equipped with a high resolution optical microscope (Olympus BX51), a mask aligner (Karl Suss MJB-3), a nano-imprinter and a thermal evaporator (Kurt J. Lesker PVD 75) for both high temperature and low temperature thin film deposition. It also offers access to central gases (N2, Ar, H2, O2, liquid CO2, compressed air) and vacuum in each working station and inside the fume hoods. Contact Roushdey Salh for booking of any of the facilities in Christiania.
Read more about Christiania
There is currently three glove boxes in our labs, where we perform lab work that requires controlled atmosphere. The photograph to the right shows two of them, interconnected and filled with nitrogen gas: The one to the left is a "dry box" (Mecalab, Mecabox 80-1) for testing and storage of samples and devices, and the one to the right is a "wet box" (VAC, OMNI-Lab 2) for solvent processing.
Operational instructions for the wet box
The "dry box" is directly connected via its interior to a thermal evaporator (Leybold Vacuum, UNIVEX 350 G), which is equipped with a substrate heater and two thermal sources.
The interconnections between the glove boxes and the thermal evaporator allows for a complete device assembly line without exposure to the ambient atmosphere.
Operational instructions for the thermal evaporator
Semiconductor characterization system
The semiconductor characterization system (Keithley, 4200-SCS) allows for accurate current measurements, with three independent source-measure units. The system can be connected via triax cables to either a probe station consisting of four microprobers (Signatone), positioned within a Faraday cage or to a vacuum cell with optical access. The latter setup allows for measurements under high vacuum (p < 10-6 mBar) or inert gas atmosphere in the temperature range of 100-700 K. The system is in addition compatible with a Raman spectrometer, and thus allows for simultaneous spectroscopic and electrical characterization.
The semi-automatic draw down coater can be used for thin film fabrication using the Mayer-rod technique. The machine moves a wire-wound coater bar (Mayer-rod) at an adjustable speed across a substrate which results in a film with a well-defined thickness. The thickness depends on the diameter of the wire surrounding the bar, as well as the material concentration in the ink employed. This method is common in large scale roll to roll fabrication, and has been used in our labs to demonstrate how our LEC technology can be up-scaled from small pixels to large-area lighting panels.
We have a FUJIFILM Dimatix DMP 2831 materials inkjet printer in our lab. It can be used to print both continuous films and user definable patterns. Ready-made inks can be bought, but inks can also prepared in-lab. We have for example used the inkjet printer to make back electrodes for LECs.
Optical-access vacuum cryostat
An optical-access vacuum cryostat (Advanced Research Systems, LC-1) with a temperature controller (Lake Shore, LS-321) and a turbo pump system (Leybold Vacuum, Turbovac 151C). The cryostat allows for a complete optoelectronic characterization over the temperature interval of 77-500K at a pressure < 10-5 mBar.
This is accomplished using a computer-controlled source-measure unit (Keithley 2400), a calibrated photo diode (Hamamatsu S9219-01) connected to a multimeter (HP34401A), a spectrometer (Ocean Optics, USB2000-FL), and a digital camera (Cannon EOS 300D, 6.3 mega pixels) equipped with a macro lens (EF 100mm f/2.8 Macro USM).
Operational instructions for the temperature controller
A computer-controlled potentiostat and galvanostat, with an integrated frequency analyser module (FRA2) for (electrochemical) impedance spectroscopy (PGSTAT302/FRA2; GPES software, compliance voltage = 30 V and bandwidth > 1 MHz). The FRA2 module allows for both potentiostatic and galvanostatic impedance measurements over a wide frequency range (10 µHz - 1MHz) and with very high resolution (0.003%). The wide range of numerical methods implemented in the GPES software allows for a high-quality data analysis.
The test system includes specifically designed electrodes for both aqueous and non-aqueous measurements (e.g., Pt, Au and Al working electrodes, Pt counter electrodes, Ag/Ag+ quasi-reference electrodes, and Ag/AgCl reference electrodes). The Autolab computer can be connected to the Ar-filled wet box, so that sample preparation and characterization can be done without exposure to ambient atmosphere. The system allows for a variety of measurements (e.g., cyclic voltammetry, chronocoulometry, linear sweep voltammetry, current and potential step measurements). The system also allows for I-R compensation.
Operational instructions for the Autolab system
The Karl-Suss MJB3 mask aligner uses a mercury arc lamp to generate a high intensity and directed UV-light. Using this light, a pattern can be transferred to a UV-sensitive material through a photo-mask. The mask aligner can be used to transfer electrode patterns for e.g. lift-off.
This spectrometer measures the fluorescence spectrum of a material while exciting it with a well-defined high energy light.
The UV/VIS spectrometer measures the absorption spectrum of a sample, from either a film or a solution.
We have two vacuum ovens in our labs: a free-standing oven (OV-11, Jeio tech) and an oven which is interconnected with a nitrogen glove box (OC-1, VAC). The respective dimensions are 302 mm x 305 mm x 302 mm (W x L x H) and 381 mm x 610 mm (Diam. x L). Maximum temperatures for the ovens are T(max) = 523 K (OV-11) and T(max)= 473 K (OC-1). Both ovens are equipped with racks (removable for OV-11). Our vacuum ovens are mainly used for drying of materials and films.
Several work stations, including the "wet box", are equipped with a spin-coating system (APT-Polos MCD200-NPP, APT Germany) and hot plates with magnetic stirrer. The spin-coater is normally operated from the front panel. It can also be operated with the LPT relay contact and pre-programmed for long-period work with a wide range of adjustable parameters.
Operational instructions for the spin-coating system
In our lab we make use of a Sartorius electronic analytical balance. It can be used to weigh non-corrosive samples and has a capacity of 60 gram and an accuracy of 0.1 milligram.
A water-cooled electron beam evaporator (Leybold-Heraeus ESV-6) connected to a TURBOVAC 450 vacuum pump (Leybold-Vacuum), which allows for deposition under a vaccuum of p < 10-4 mBar.
Operational voltage range: 6-12kV, maximum electron beam power: 6kW, maximum cathode current: 30A, free evaporation angle: 110 degrees, smallest beam size app.: 8x5 mm.
Operational instructions for the electron beam evaporator
Additional source-measure units (Keithley 2400)
Video microscope (Sony, TechnoLOOK CM-10)
Other equipment available
Raman spectrometer [Renishaw1000 equipped with an Ar-ion laser (514.5nm), a He-Ne laser (632.5 nm) and a diode laser (782 nm)]
Multimode scanning probe microscope with a Nanoscope IV Controller (Veeco Metrology)
X-ray diffraction system
Differential scanning calorimeter (Perkin-Elmer Pyris Diamond DSC)
Nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer (Varian CMX Infinity)